The 7th Sense And 5 Amazing Variations

by | Apr 7, 2020 | Anatomy | 0 comments

7th sense

7th Sense

The sensory organs supply the brain with information that helps to understand and perceive the world around them. Besides the well-known five senses, people have more. Here’s how it works …

Touch

Touch

We consider the touch to be the first sense that a person develops. It comprises distinct sensations that the brain receives from special neurons in the skin. By touch we feel a lot of things – pressure, temperature, touch, pain.

These sensations are related to different receptors in the skin. The only role of touch is not communication with the outside world – it is also important for human well-being. We have proven it, for example, that people show compassion with a touch.

Tactile can also influence decision making. We can associate texture with a variety of abstract representations, and touching a particular texture can influence human decisions, according to six works by researchers at Harvard University and Yale University, published on June 24, 2010 in the journal Science.

Sight

Sight

Seeing or perceiving with the eyes is a complicated process. First, light is reflected from an object and perceived by the eye. The outer, transparent layer of the eye, called the cornea, emits rays of light that flow through the pupil opening.

The iris – the colored part of the eye – is like a camera lens – it shrinks to reduce the amount of light entering or expands to capture more light.

Most focus on the cornea. The light then flows through the lens which focuses it even more. The lens of the eye refracts light rays and focuses them on the retina at the back of the eye where many nerve cells are located.

These cells have the shape of rods and cobs, and they are called accordingly. The cobs transform light into color, central vision and detail. The sticks create peripheral vision and movement vision, and allowing you to see something when there is little light, such as at night.

The information got from the light is sent to the brain by electrical pulses through the optic nerve.

Hearing

Hearing

We associate this sensation with a complex maze – the ear. The sound is initially received by the outer ear, and from there it enters the passage of the outer ear where it is carried to the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin film of elastic connective tissue that vibrates when sound waves hit it.

The vibrations go further to the middle ear where there are 3 auditory stones – the hammer (malleus), the perch (incus) and the step (stapes), which also vibrate under the influence of sound. The step pushes a structure called an oval window membrane and transmits sound to a spiral auditory perceptual organ called the Curtis Organ.

The tiny hair cells in it convert vibrations into electrical impulses, and the impulses travel to the brain through the sensory nerves. A sense of balance is provided by a hearing aid or Eustachian canal, which is in the middle ear and equalizes the air pressure and atmospheric pressure.

There is a vestibular apparatus in the inner ear which is also very important for maintaining balance, as there are receptors that control the sense of balance. We connect the inner ear to the auditory and balance nerve, which delivers sound and balance information to the brain.

Smell

Smell

Researchers believe that humans can distinguish more than a trillion distinct scents. The aromas are perceived by the olfactory epithelium at the top of the nasal cavity, and the part of the brain that processes it and the olfactory bulb are nearby.

The nerve endings in the olfactory epithelium deliver the scent to the brain. Everyone knows that dogs smell very good, but research shows that it can be just as sharp in humans.

A study published in the May 11, 2017 issue of Science claims that humans can distinguish a trillion distinct odors – we once thought this number to be only 10,000. In fact, human smell is as sharp as rodents and dogs.

A study by Ratner University confirms the results of another study conducted at Rockefeller University in New York and published as findings in the March 2014 issue of Science. Humans have 400 olfactory receptors.

True, this is less than in animals that have a great sense of smell, but this difference is bridged by the more complex human brains.

Taste

Taste

We usually divide the taste into four different perceived flavors – salty, sweet, sour and bitter. There is also a fifth – spicy.

The sense of taste has contributed to the evolution of humanity. The bitter taste may have meant that the plant was poisonous or rotten. In contrast, salty and sweet were often rich in valuable nutrients.

We feel the taste with taste buds – for an adult it is 2000-4000. Most are on the tongue, but some are also at the end of the throat, nasal cavity and esophagus.

The fact that the tongue has separate regions for feeling specific tastes is just a myth. Five flavors can be felt with all parts of the tongue.

True, the sides are more sensitive than the middle. About half of the sensory cells in the taste buds respond to several of the five basic flavors. The information can only be complete when it has been collected from all parts of the tongue.

The other side of sensory cells specializes in only one taste. Their job is to pass on information about the intensity of the taste – how salty or sweet something is. There are other factors that help the brain create a sense of taste.

It is very strongly influenced, for example, by the smell of food. The aroma also enters the mouth and is tested together with the taste of the food. Therefore, if a person has a runny nose, the sense of taste may disappear.

sense of space

A Sense Of Space

Besides the five primary senses, there is also one related to the brain’s understanding of the body’s place in space. This sensation is called proprioception, and it shares a sense of movement and a sense of where our members are.

Thanks to this sensation, a person can, for example, touch the nose with a splash, even when the eyes are closed. It ensures that we can climb stairs, regardless of each individual step.

People with this underdeveloped sense can be awkward and uncoordinated.

Researchers at the American National Institutes of Health estimate that the particularly weak proprioception of some people may be because of a gene mutation passed down from generation to generation.

Other senses

Additional Senses and Sensory Variations

People also have senses that many are unaware of. Our body has, for example, neuronal sensors that sense movement to control balance and head tilt.

We have special kinesthetic receptors that sense muscle and tendon stretching, helping to control the limbs.

Still other receptors determine the level of oxygen in the arteries of a certain circulatory system. Sometimes people’s perceptions differ.

People with a strong sense of synesthesia can see sounds as colors or associate certain visual scenes with smells.

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