What Should I Know About Gestational Diabetes

by | Apr 16, 2021 | Wellness | 0 comments

gestational diabetes

What is Gestational Diabetes?

One type of diabetes that is rarely talked about in society is gestational diabetes, a disorder of glucose tolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy.

We recommend that all expectant mothers take a gestational diabetes test at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation.

These are disorders of any level and severity of sugar metabolism that occur during pregnancy, most commonly during the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy.

This diabetes usually disappears after childbirth, but there are cases when a woman develops some type of diabetes during pregnancy.

The conversation between the gynecologist and the pregnant woman is very important – we ask purposeful questions about previous analyzes, eating habits, physical activities, family history.

Gestational Diabetes Can Be Indicated By:

  • Frequent thirst and severe dry mouth. If you drink over 2 liters of water every day, then you need to pay attention to the reasons;
  • Frequent urination;
  • Unusually high appetite, but at the same time weight loss;
  • The weight of the mother and the future child is burgeoning;
  • Rapid growth of the baby which does not correspond to the specific week and does not correspond to the specific time of pregnancy.

We recommend that all expectant mothers take a gestational diabetes test at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation.

A glucose test shows diabetes in pregnant women with 75 g of glucose.

The test shows diabetes mellitus in pregnant women if at least one of the blood glucose levels meets the following criteria:

  • fasting blood glucose ≥5.1-6.9 mmol / L;
  • blood sugar level ≥10 mmol / L one hour after the glucose test;
  • blood sugar levels ≥8.5-11 mmol / L two hours after a glucose test.

Every pregnant woman should have a body mass index. BMI (body mass index) lower than 25 kg / sqm is assessed as a risk factor.

In the 25th to 26th weeks of pregnancy, an oral glucose tolerance test is performed if the BMI is> 25 kg / sqm and there are some additional risk factors –

  • low physical activity (less than 9 – 10,000 steps per day),
  • first-degree relatives,
  • diabetes,
  • history of gestational diabetes or birth weight less than 4 kg,
  • arterial hypertension> 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive therapy,
  • dyslipidaemia,
  • PCO syndrome,
  • pre-existing borderline hyperlipidaemia,
  • history of cardiovascular disease,
  • under 35 years of age,
  • smoking,
  • smoking during pregnancy,
  • the development of fetal macrosomes during the current pregnancy, as determined at 21 weeks of gestation by ultrasonography and measurement of fetal size.

Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes

  • Women with a body mass index of 30 kg / m2 or more;
  • Women over the age of 35;
  • Type 2 diabetes in relatives with first degree;
  • Twins, triplets, etc. pregnancy;
  • Medical fertilization;
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus in previous pregnancy;
  • Excessive weight gain in previous pregnancy;
  • In a previous pregnancy, the child’s body weight was 4.5 kg and more;
  • Complications in previous pregnancy (eg miscarriage, premature birth, stillborn child for unknown reasons);
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.

Prevention of Gestational Diabetes

If we diagnose gestational diabetes, diet therapy, adequate physical activity (10,000 steps per day and exercise) and glycemic control are prescribed.

We assess the intensity of exercise by whether you can sing (low), talk (medium) or take a break before you speak (high). Also recommended for walking, Nordic walking, swimming – physical activities for all muscle groups.

The possibility of falling and exercising on the back, which can cause circulatory problems, should be avoided.

The diet should be balanced and complete, ensuring blood sugar levels within the normal range.

1600 – 1800 kcal per day should be taken, comprising 35-45% carbohydrates, 20 – 25% protein and 35 – 40% fat.

If normal blood sugar levels cannot be maintained, insulin therapy should be started.

If insulin is used, postpartum glucose monitoring (4 times) should be performed, followed by 6 to 12 weeks postpartum and by a GP and endocrinologist.

If a woman has been diagnosed with diabetes before pregnancy, then before planning a pregnancy, it is important to visit an endocrinologist, evaluate the state of health, medications used to normalize sugar levels, dosage and sugar level control.

When planning a pregnancy, we recommend you stop taking oral diabetes mellitus and switch to insulin.

We should definitely consult an endocrinologist on these issues. It is also important to assess blood pressure readings and consult an ophthalmologist.

Consequences of Gestational Diabetes

  • unfavorable outcome of pregnancy – premature birth or trauma, miscarriage;
  • complications during childbirth;
  • congenital infantile disorders, including diabetes.

Treatment of Gestational Diabetes

  • A healthy lifestyle, diet and physical activity are critically necessary activities;
  • When creating your daily menu, it is important to reduce foods that are high in carbohydrates. Create a customized eating and physical activity plan in consultation with professionals;
  • Choose fiber-rich products;
  • We recommend it to find time for 3-4 meals every day, as well as to make sure that the diet contains B vitamins, vitamins A and C, as well as zinc and chromium;
  • At least 30 minutes of any physical activity each day;
  • If the sugar level cannot be normalized with diet and physical activity, then the use of antidiabetic drugs should be started after an endocrinologist’s visit;
  • Be sure to repeat the glucose test after delivery.
What is gestational diabetes
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