Nervous System

The Nervous System is a complex structure of nerves and special cells (neurons).

Neurons conduct signals, with which they coordinate different body parts. Could say that our nervous system is the electrical installation of our body.

By the structure, we can divide nervous system into two types:

1. Central Nervous System

  • Brain (cerebrum)
  • Spinal Cord
  • Nerves

2.Peripheral Nervous System

  • Feeling or Sensory Neurons
  • Nerve Nodes or Ganglia and Nerves that connects with eachother and with the CNS (Central Nervous System)

Functionally the nervous system has two sections :

1. Somatic or Conscious

Comprises nerves that connect spinal cord and cerebrum with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

2. Autonomous or Subconscious/Vegetative. 

Regulates certain body processes, for example, blood pressure and breathing.

Did You know that scientists have discovered a way to hack the nervous system with electrical impulses?

Nervous System Description

Nerves are cylindrical bundles of fibres that start at brain and spinal cord and go to all body parts. Neurons signal other cells over fine fibers, which are called neural axons, causing the release of neurotransmitters at the junctions, that is being called synapses.

On average, the human brain has over 100 trillion nerve compounds, however, their count and where they are located are not the same.

Interesting Facts About The Brain

  • The brain weighs about 1,5 KG
  • The brain has about 86 billion nerve cells (neurons) , also known as “Gray Matter”
  • Neurons are linked by several trillion synapses
  • The brain makes up about 2% of body weight
  • There are billions of nerve cells in the brain (axon and dendrites) , also known as “White Matter”
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Did You know that largest neuron in human body extends from the base of the spine to the feet?

Neurons are specialized cells that transmit signals in the body.

Human brain has 3 different systems that are in different parts of the brain, however they are activated all at once. 

People who are better able to activate them reacts more creatively.

Synapse gives order to cell, and the complete communication process takes place at the speed of second particle.

Signals are being transmitted through alfa motoneurons in spinal cord with a velocity of 431 km/h. It is the fastest movement in the human body.

Sensory neurons respond to physical stimuli, for example, light, sound and touch, and send CNS information about environment.

Motoneurons, that are in CNS or in peripheral ganglia, transfer signals that activates body muscles.

Nervous system support is provided by neuroglial cells. Their function is to supplement, protect, and nourish neurons.

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Cerebral cortex in brain is markedly enlarged, and we believe it it’s where most complex thoughts are being processed.

The processing of visual information takes place in the occipital lobe. 

Sound and language impulses are being processed in the temples lobe – it is also where hippocampus and almond-shaped kernel core is located, they have an important role in memory and emotion functioning. 

Brainpan lobe handles different senses aggregation of transmitted signals into one scene, therefore it is very important for orientation.

Brain stem connects with spinal cord and comprises –

  • Elongated brain
  • Bridge
  • Midbrain

Brain stem primary functions are to pass information back and forth from body to brain, supply of individual head and facial nerves and other important functions, that help to control actions of the heart, breathing and conscious.

Between the front part of the brain and brain stem are located thalamus and hypothalamus. 

Thalamus transfers sensory and motor signals to cerebral cortex and is involved in a state of consciousness, sleep and attention regulation.

Hypothalamus with the help of pituitary gland connect nervous system with endocrine system , that handles hormone production.

However, cerebellum is located under the front part of the brain and they are play important role in motor function, coordination, and balance sensation.

It is also possible that they have cognitive function.

Brain Anatomy

Human nervous system Headquarters are in the brain. It receives signals from sensations and transfer information to muscles.

Biggest part of brain comprises front lobe, who is having two hemispheres. 

Under the terminal brain there is a brain stem, but behind it the cerebellum. Front lobe outer layer is called cerebral cortex, and we distinguish it by four lobes – 

  • Frontal or Forehead
  • Temple
  • Brainpan
  • Occupital

Just like for all vertebrates, people are also developing their brain from three primary parts or bladders –

  • Front 
  • Middle
  • Back

Each has cavities filled with liquid, also known as ventricles. In the front develops front brain lobe and structures related to it.

The middle part becomes brain stem, but back creates part of brain stem and cerebellum.

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