Psychosis – the highest nerve disorders, because of which the brain loses the ability to correctly reflect the outside world, analyze and synthesize the received irritations and respond to them correctly, the patient’s well-being and self-consciousness change.
Several factors are important in the origin of psychosis:
- organic brain damage due to pregnancy pathology and fetal malformation,
- head injury (especially if acquired in early childhood),
- cerebrovascular atherosclerosis,
- chronic autointoxication caused by severe metabolic disorders;
- acute and chronic infection (encephalitis, meningoencephalitis) a
- intoxication (alcohol poisoning, drugs, atropine);
- Severe psychic experiences – psychotraumas; malnutrition, prolonged physical and mental overload, unhygienic living conditions.
How Psychosis Affects The Body
During psychosis, the patient develops various mental disorders – symptoms and syndromes of mental illness.
The most common of these are:
- Perceptual disorders (illusions, hallucinations, senestopathies);
- Mood changes (depression, mania, apathy, dysphoria, euphoria), thinking disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder);
- Consciousness disorders (dizziness, delirium, amence, oneyroid, twilight) intellectual disorders (dementia);
- Personality changes;
- Neurotic disorders (parapsychopathic and paraneurotic conditions).
The nature and depth of psychosis can vary. During the disease, the perception of the surrounding subject world often remains unchanged.
The patient with sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste gets the right information about the surroundings, but cannot properly test the gathered data.
In these cases, the disease most often manifests itself in the wrong thoughts – nightmares (disorders at one point), otherwise the patient can assess both the surrounding situation and his condition correctly.
These patients usually feel ill-treated, monitored, persecuted, and so on. (i.e. nightmare psychosis). Sometimes nightmares are accompanied by perceptual disorders – hallucinations; then hallucinations and nightmares of psychosis develop.
Although these patients have distorted real-world perceptions (hallucinations and nightmares), these psychoses occur with a clear sense of consciousness.
They are usually long lasting, starting and ending slowly, gradually. Psychoses with consciousness disorders are characterized by a primarily altered perception of the external subject world, which is not possible at all or is severely impaired or distorted.
These psychoses usually start and end faster, the mental disorders are more pronounced.
Affective psychoses include psychoses whose clinical picture is dominated by emotional disorders. Depression is the most common of these, and its diagnosis and treatment have received increasing attention in recent decades.
Affective psychoses include manic-depressive psychosis, and some forms of schizophrenia and involutionary psychosis. The course of psychosis can be continuous, periodic or recurrent progressive.
The pace of continuous development can vary. If the course of psychosis is malignant, the disease progresses rapidly and soon leads to a state of deep defect. In other cases, the course of psychosis can be very slow, even difficult to notice (eg paranoia).
For psychoses with a recurring course, the periods of exacerbation and recovery of the disease change.
Recurrent progressive progression, which is characteristic of schizophrenia and epilepsy, seems to combine the peculiarities of continuous and intermittent course – acute exacerbations periodically occur against the background of slow and continuous disease.
The prognosis for psychosis can vary. Many psychoses can be completely cured, but sometimes the consequences remain – nightmares, hallucinations or personality changes, dementia.
Treatments using ever new psychopharmacological agents make it possible to successfully combat mental illness. Early diagnosis and treatment of psychosis at an early stage is ensured by the Soviet health care system.
We have organized a network of psychiatric health institutions. Psychoneurological dispensaries perform preventive work, treat patients on an outpatient basis, and at home, they also organize day hospitals and occupational therapy workshops. Psychiatric hospitals for inpatient treatment.
Maniacally Depressive Psychosis
Circular psychosis, cyclophrenia – a mental illness that manifests itself in periodic mood disorders. Typically, it takes place in phases: manic states (unreasonably elevated mood) alternate with depression (depression). Between the phases there is a complete recovery, i.e. light periods.
Between the phases there is a complete recovery, i.e. light periods. Sometimes the disease manifests itself only in manic conditions or only in depression.
Mood swings often occur during certain seasons (usually spring, autumn). The reasons are not clear. In a manic state, the patient is excessively energetic and active.
He has a lively facial expression, accelerated speech, the mood of the voice does not correspond to the situation. The mood is elevated, thoughts transform, a lot of intentions arise, but they cannot be implemented, because the patient cannot concentrate in one direction for a long time, cannot assess real difficulties.
In a pronounced manic state, the patient has impaired inhibition processes, sexual arousal, extravagance, etc. because of inconsistent attention and excessive activity, thinking loses its purpose, judgments become careless.
In atypical manic states, instead of fun, an elevated mood can arise along with annoyance and evil.
The depression phase is characterized by a depressed mood, accompanied by stillness and sluggish thinking. The patient spends most of his time sleeping or sitting still, expressing deep sadness and hopelessness in his face.
In severe cases, stillness can lead to complete stiffness – depressive stupor.
In the depressive phase, the patient considers himself a useless person which is a burden for his relatives. This creates the possibility of suicide attempts, so relatives must be especially vigilant.
In case of deep depression, patients feel emptiness in their head, heaviness of thoughts, inertia. There is an appetite and sleep disorder.
With masked depression, the first place is vegetative disorders – most often pain in the heart area, fast heartbeat, high blood pressure or t°, headache, nausea, constipation or diarrhea.
The depressive phase can also manifest itself in so-called as dull or matte depression. It is characterized by a lack of interests, energy, activity, ability to concentrate at the same time with a depressed mood.
The patient loses the pleasure of working, talking to relatives, has a desire to sit idly by or sleep; the most difficult situation is in the mornings.
Externally, this form of depression is like fatigue or asthenia. The disease most often begins after the age of 30. The duration of the phases can range from a few weeks to a few months, but sometimes, if the manic-depressive psychosis is severe, it can take a year or more.
Depressive phases are usually longer than manic, especially in the elderly. Treatment. During an exacerbation, we must treat the patient in hospital. Neuroleptics, psychostimulant and antidepressants are used.