Skeletal System Functions, Development and Diseases

by | Mar 4, 2020 | Health | 0 comments

Skeletal system

Skeletal System

It has very important functions:

  • Supports The Body
  • Accumulates Calcium
  • Helps Ensure Movement
  • Protects
  • Produces Blood Cells
  • Regulates The Endocrine System

Therefore ensures Our survival.

Did you know that bone fractures mostly happen in arm bones and clavicle?

Adult body has 206 bones that are connected by tendons, bonds(ties) and cartilage.

Animals with internal bone skeletons also known as vertebrates on Our planet are in minority. Till 98% of Earth resident species are not vertebrates, that means they don’t possess inner skeleton or has no backbone.

For Us, humans, bone count when We are born are not the same as when We become adults. 

Newborn babies are born with ~300 bones and part of them get together in development stage. Furthermore at adult sage this number is down to 206.  

Males usually grow till late teen age, however females – 2 more years after menstruation has begun. At this point happens ossification, process which stops bones from growing. 

Male and Female skeleton differentiates a little, mainly because, females could be able to give birth.

Female skeleton pelvic bone is thinner, more round and comparatively bigger. Male pelvic bone angle is about 90 degrees or less, however female – 100 degrees or more.

Outside of the body bones become fragile, however inside they are part of important organism processes. 

Whole blood vessel net connects them with blood vessel system and supplies them with nutrients, furthermore around it is located lot of nerves. 

Usually bones have dense, hard outer layer. Deeper there is sponge type layer that is little bit elastic. Some of the bones in the middle have gel type bone marrow, where continuously happens blood circulation processes.

Teeth is considered as part of the skeleton, however they aren’t counted as bones. Teeth consists of dentin and enamel, who is the toughest part of our body. They are main part of digestive system.

Skeleton have 2 main parts:

  • Axial skeleton – consists of around 80 bones, including backbone, chest and skull. Axial skeleton divides weight from head to body and upper limbs and lower limbs, connecting in hips. That is the reason humans can stand straight.
  • Limb skeleton – consists of 126 bones, shoulder blades, upper limbs, hip bone and upper limbs. These bone purpose is to enable ability to walk and run and to do other motion related actions, protect digestive, excretion and reproductive organs.

Skeletal System  Diseases

Skeletal disease and deformation diagnostics use mainly x-ray, magnetic resonance, bone density and arthoscopic examination. In addition in cancer diagnostics use bone scanning and bone marrow biopsy. 

Most common bone diseases are metabolic disorders, for example, osteoporosis, osteomalacia and few rarer ailments.

Osteoporosis is one of most common bone diseases, which are more common for elderly people and causes bone tissue loss. Bones lose calcium, become thinner and prone to injury. 

Osteomalacia, however causes bones to become soft. It is caused by lack of vitamin D and failures in bone formation processes , however osteoporosis affects already formed bones. 

Arthritis have more than 100 types of inflammation, who damages joints and nearby tissue. Arthritis may damage joints, articular cartilage, nearby tissue or other body parts as whole. 

Most often damaged bones are in withers, shoulders, arms, crosses, hips or knees. Diagnosis are concluded by careful examination and laboratory tests. However treatment depends out  of arthritis type. 

Most occurring deformation is Scoliosis – curvature in backbone, in x-ray examination looks like C or S. This deformation occurs mostly in teen age. Approximately 90% feels pain in crosses at least once in a lifetime. Often You can treat it with anti-inflammatory drugs, however some cases might require topical preperations or electrical stimulation.

Skeleton endangers also fractures, sprains and tears. To break bones, who protect inner organs You need 10-16 lbs high pressure. However to break skull or thigh You need a lot more pressure. 

Skeletal System

Skeletal Examination

Skeletal examination field is called orthopedics. Most orthopeds study deeper to specialize in one fields – backbone, arms or sports injuries

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Orthopedic Development

  1. Paleolithic era. Ancient people used to engrave something on bones of their enemies after eating them. 
  2. Around 460-370 B.C ancient Greek medicine father Hippocrates thinks of bone fractures can be treated by applying emergency splint. 
  3. 199-129 B.C Ancient Rome era Gallen describes skeletal muscle system. Around the same time medicine experts invents first prostheses.
  4. 16. century French surgery founder Ambrose in Parre (1510 – 1590) designs amputation and prothesis methods.
  5. 19.century 1851. year dutch war surgeon invents plaster bandage, exactly what is used today for bone fracture, to ensure stillness in the process of healing. 
  6. 1895. year Wilhelm Conrad Rentgen accidently notices image, what is created by cathod ray generator. 1901. year invents X-Ray and gets Nobel prize in physics.
  7. 1940. year sir Reginald Watson Jones (1902.-1972) publish book “Fractures and joint injuries” which becomes field standard for many decades.
  8. 1949. year H. Louri Rash (1879.-1965) for the first time uses long stainless steel needles for bone fracture treatment.
  9. 2016. year Scientists forthe first time grows bones from human cells.

X-Ray examination allows scientists to find out more about Our bones, because their dense structure absorbs X-Ray radiation, however soft tissue passes right through.

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Facts About Skeleton

Half of bones are in palms and feet

Human body have different shape and size of bones, and they aren’t split equally. In some places bone count are significantly higher.

Most of them are in palms of hands and feet. Each palm has 27 bones, feet- 26. It means that in both palms and feet there are 106 bones and its more than half of all the bones in body.

Few people have an extra rib, which can cause problems

Most adults have 24 ribs (12 pairs), however each 500. adult have an extra rib which is also called neck boundary. This rib is located above collar bone, however in most cases it’s not developed completely. Sometimes it’s just few cell threads.

It can cause health problems – press nearby blood vessels or nerves. IF that is the case, then symptoms are – pain in shoulders or neck, loss of sensation in joints, thrombs and other health disorders.

All bones are connected, except for one

Tongue bone is horseshoe type of bone inside the throat, it is located between chin and thyroid cartilage. It is only bone in human body that is not connected with others.

It is considered that, this bone is speeches anatomical basis, because it can move larynx and tongue so it could make sounds that we use in speech.

Besides humans, such bone possessed only neanderthals, and so scientists could make guesses that Neanderthals had their own speech also.

First functional prosthesis invented ancient Egyptians

Prosthesis are parts of artificial body parts, who can replace the originals. Some have only aesthetic function (eyes), but others enables body to function better.

Approximately before 3000 years old Egyptians invented first functional prosthesis – artificial leg finger. In 2011. year scientist proved that Egyptians using this prosthesis was easier to move around in sandals.

Bone tumors were around before 120 000 Years

Bones are made from live, active cells. And inside of them can develop benignant or malignant tumors. Humans have been fighting them for thousands of years. In 2013.

year scientist found out tumor in body of Neanderthal rib, which was 120 000 – 130 000 year olf. It’s oldest tumor in history of humans. 

Bones aren’t hardest part of our body

Bones are hard and can endure high pressure, in fact, they are more durable than steel.

However there is something much more durable and it is teeth enamel, who protects teeth and is so powerful because of minerals complexity, especially because of calcium salts.

We can’t control our bones directly

Only thing that can enable movement are muscles.

Humans have been treating fractured bones for thousands of years

As long there are human species there will always be bone fractures. Therefore humans have found a way to treat them.

Around 1600. B.C. people were already discussing how to treat fractures. They thought – put fractures together and bandage fractured body part with linen bandages.

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