Type 2 Diabetes and Nutrition
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world. It is a disease that we often provoke ourselves – by eating wrong, not moving enough, being overweight.
They diagnose most patients with this type of diabetes after the age of 50, although there is a worldwide trend for patients with type 2 diabetes to become younger. Most patients have severe overweight, hypertension and various complaints about their health.
It reduces insulin sensitivity of cells in patients with type 2 diabetes. These are mainly muscle and fat cells that glucose cannot enter without insulin.
They need more insulin to allow glucose to enter the cells. Initially, the amount in the blood is increased, the numbness of the cells progresses over time, and the increased amount of insulin is not enough.
In the treatment of diabetes, we use preparations that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin and that increase the synthesis of insulin in the pancreas. However, over time, patients may require insulin.
It is important to change the diet, regular introduction of physical activities into daily habits, which can significantly improve the treatment of diabetes.
It is important to motivate patients, especially those who are overweight, to embark on weight loss, emphasizing that reducing fat in fat patients and starting regular physical activity increases cellular sensitivity to insulin and even avoids medication.
Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats? Where Are They Hiding?
The specialist will explain understandably what raises blood sugar levels, how the body processes the ingested nutrients.
It is advisable to show schematically how the diet is broken down into carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Understandably, it will be explained how carbohydrates break down into glucose, get into the bloodstream and thus increase glucose levels.
It is often misleading to think that without eating sweets, everything will be fine. It is important to explain here that not only sweets, but all carbohydrate-containing products increase blood sugar levels.
It is important to explain the difference between complex and simple carbohydrates. Many elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have careful eating habits that have taken root over many years, so it is important to understand what whole grain products are available in stores and how to use them.
It is important to include fiber-containing products in your daily diet, which will give the food volume, create a feeling of satiety, but the amount of calories consumed will be proportionate.
Fiber-containing products are a good helper for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and are a good helper in the fight against constipation.
The patient will find fiber, both soluble and water-insoluble, in wholemeal bread, vegetables. Water-soluble fiber in oat grains and flakes, barley, fruit pulp creates a gel-like consistency and slows down the movement of food in the stomach, which slows down the rise in glucose levels after eating.
Healthy person should use dietary protein products for diabetes, except for weight loss, in which case the Protein should be increased to 20% of the total daily calories, but we should avoid excessive use of Protein products to avoid overloading the kidneys. The diet includes both dairy products, fish, lean meat, legumes – beans, peas, lentils.
Fat is not affected by fluctuations in sugar levels, on the contrary, it is a stumbling block for many patients with type 2 diabetes, including too fatty and high-calorie foods in their daily diet.
This is especially important if you need to lose weight! It is necessary to learn how to replace fat cream, mayonnaise, for example, with unadulterated yogurt, to which can be added mustard, herbs.
The nutritionist will explain the difference between “good” monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and “bad” fats – saturated fats and trans fatty acids, and show in which products and product groups fats are to be found.
The way food is prepared at home and how fat is added is important. Here are instructions for using a brush soaked in oil to lubricate the pan, use only a teaspoon for cooking oil, but it is best to encourage the use of ovens, baking dishes, etc. for cooking, where the dish is prepared without the addition of unnecessary oil, but excellent quality olive oil added to salads.
Glycemic Index – A Helper For The Eater
The glycemic index shows the increase in blood sugar after eating a particular product compared to the amount of sugar given by the same portion of white bread.
We recommend it to use products with the lowest possible glycemic index. Dairy products provide a feeling of satiety for a long time and do not cause the desire to snack unnecessarily.
We can find glycemic index tables both in the literature and on the Internet.
The “traffic light” tables are convenient, as we should avoid red products, yellow products should be used sparingly, and we should use green products without restriction.
It is also necessary to remember about the daily use of the liquid – water, various unsweetened teas, because still, especially the elderly, do not drink enough liquid – mostly in the morning and a little in the evening.
Daily Dietary Recommendations:
Cereals – 6-11 servings per day:
1 serving is 1 slice of bread or 1 medium potato or ½ glass of ready-made rice, pasta, buckwheat, etc.
½ glasses of fresh or cooked legumes
Vegetables – 3-5 servings a day
1 serving is ½ glass (200 ml) of stewed, boiled vegetables
1 cup (200 ml) of uncooked vegetables
½ glasses (150 ml) of vegetable juice
Fruit – 2-4 servings a day:
1 serving is 1 medium apple
½ pear, banana
10-15 grapes, strawberries
1 cup garden berry
Dairy products – 2-3 servings per day:
1 serving is a glass of milk
½ glass (150 ml) of yogurt
100 g of skimmed milk curd
Meat, fish – 2-3 servings
1 serving is 100 g of cooked fish
70 g of cooked meat
Fats, oils, sweets:
recommended as little as possible
1 serving is:
1 teaspoon margarine
1 teaspoon oil
1 teaspoon mayonnaise